Constructivism is a school of thought with a psychological matrix that – then moved to the field of education, among other things or we can say Constructivist Teaching.
Based on the concept that each individual constructs knowledge of the world around them by reflecting on their own experiences. Is.
For constructivists there would be no knowledge independent of the known subject (ie objective): everything is subjective because we give different meanings to things.
Psychological construction theory
As the name suggests, constructivism goes back to the construction theory of George Kelly.
This, more accurately “theory of individual construction psychology”, was elaborated through the “repertoire grid.
A technique based on the principle that it is possible to identify mathematical relationships between an individual’s constructs.
Construction is nothing more than self-made mental plans with which a person – through experience and observation – interprets events.
So everyone looks at reality through different lenses and evaluates the results of their own approach before making a decision or implementing a project (creative alternativeism).
Learning vs teaching
Under these premises, knowledge serves to adapt to the environment, as the subject, based on the internal rediscovery of sensations, beliefs and feelings, constructs knowledge for cognitive maps that enable him to orient himself.
Learning therefore is not meant to be an objective representation of what is around us (according to a hypothetical knowledge model).
But to construct one’s own vision of a world full of subjective meanings: this makes the individual the hero of his learning.
In education, it leads to learning (training from the learner’s point of view) rather than teaching (training from the teacher’s point of view, actually the teacher).
As already mentioned, knowledge is therefore not seen as a fiction, but as a social product that results from interactions between different actors and tools, such as new information and communication technologies (ICTs).
Objectives and Tools
According to teacher David Jonassen, the goals of a constructivist learning environment are to:
- in favor of the creation of knowledge, not its reproduction;
- Prefer a form of learning based on case studies;
- Make relevant the knowledge you have always tested;
- Limit the use of predetermined learning sequences;
- presents multiple views of reality;
- Promoting cooperative education.
The tools that can be used to further these objectives are some of the typical thought tools of ICT, i.e. spreadsheets, databases, hypermedia and other programs.
That enable the learner to conduct analysis, evaluation, synthesis, problem solving and reflection. enable enable, which it aims to create. own vision of reality.
This does not always result in self-learning: it is about offering the learning experience in the form of a flexible adaptation of previous knowledge to the needs of a new training situation.
From a constructivist perspective, group work and/or cooperative learning also enables the individual to find efficient solutions (approaches in the classroom.
Social constructivism is not a method. It is an epistemological theory that knowledge is formed within the socio-cultural context in which the individual operates.
From this point of view, conversations and languages therefore play a fundamental role in the learning process.
In academia, some authors who can be correctly assigned to the constructivist stream, such as J. Piaget, focused his theories on the individual construction and neglected the social and interpersonal aspect.
Social constructivism, on the other hand, sees learning as the process of creating meaning that is interacted with others rather than acquiring knowledge that exists somewhere outside the learner.
How do we create reality?
Modern pedagogy owes much to the observations of Vygotsky, who had the merit of emphasizing the intrinsic social, interpersonal nature of learning.
His studies on the relationship between thinking and language contributed significantly to the later development of thought currents and didactic methods.
Which highlights the collaborative and collaborative aspects in the teaching / learning process.
But as I said, social constructivism is not a method, as it is not intended to provide teachers with manuals or precise instructions for teaching practice.
Writers like N. Goodman and, more recently, the Americans P. Oldfather, J. Westen, J. Weiss, J. Wilmarth or in Italy Prof.
Mario Polito say that every teacher develops attitudes and methods while recognizing his interests. Address your students’ needs and find out what is right for them.
They also affirm that the lessons are the result of careful observation and great sensitivity towards the students.
But what significance and what influence can these ideas have on the work of a language teacher, especially
when leading a mixed class?
How can we meet the linguistic needs of the individual and improve the skills of all through a social approach?
In a systematic view, the class group is viewed as a whole and not understood as a simple sum of individuals, but as a network of relationships and interpersonal relationships.
From this perspective, the teacher sees her students as part of a community where they can help each other learn by making the most of each other’s resources.
Thus, in the “linear” view of the classroom, the teacher relates one-sidedly to everyone taking into account his or her individual needs.
In the “systematic” view, he must be able to see, register and take into account the dominant and the invisible relational aspect that exist.
Between the different members of the class, as well as the wealth that arises from different intelligences and abilities.
To act constructivist means to deal with different possibilities and to act so that they not only arise, but also become a source of prosperity for everyone.
In short, to create a kind of “collection” aimed at general knowledge building.
Many teachers inspired by social constructivism can use classroom activities to act as “side guides” and turn learning into a collaborative enterprise in which students help each other.
In a social dimension of learning, the classroom is largely determined by the significant presence of each individual, and the teacher is not the only source of knowledge, but becomes a changing part of himself.
It goes without saying that this approach takes a lot of effort for the teacher to change his mindset.
Planning didactic activities in class that no longer take place “linearly”, one-sided and gradually varying aimed at one or more students with similar linguistic abilities.
Who is part of the knowledge?
Motivated and motivated to select the activities that are most suitable for them.
This does not mean that the figure of the teacher and with him the bearer of knowledge and ability should disappear, nor that the student is left alone with the selection and completion of the task.
The teacher acts as a competent companion with the students and organizes a wide range of activities that meet the needs and requirements.
Of the different levels in the classroom, making sure that each individual needs a cognitive challenge.
The materials offered are neither too trivial, under The threat of demotivation is so demanding that it seems impossible.
Most importantly, it should allow students to choose activities that offer an appropriate level of challenge.
Basically everyone is looking for answers to their own needs, and it is precisely this autonomy, this self-determination in the choice of material.
What does Vygotsky think?
Which can be negotiated with the teacher and the class group – that enables every learner to be active and deeply motivated to do, and not only, motivated passive as a knowledge consumer.
Furthermore, it does not mean that the teacher should accept everything.
He intervenes knowing that the main purpose of his actions is the individual’s self-actualization and that he is more likely to participate in the learning process when he experiences a sense of self-worth and self-efficacy.
The principles that are now taught in a mixed language course can partly be acquired during the center time, which is of interest and for which different and graded activities correspond to the levels.
Basically, there is a lack of uniformity in the level of basic linguistic knowledge of the students.
Ni is not necessarily to be seen by the teacher as a binding restriction, but as an enrichment for the individual, human and linguistic development of everyone.
What are the basics for meaningful learning?
For meaningful learning it is therefore necessary that the knowledge: is the product of an active construction on the part of the subject.
Closely related to the specific learning situation; It arises from social cooperation and interpersonal communication.
What is learning after constructivism?
Constructivism is a learning theory based on the principle of constructivism, according to which the learner builds mental models.
To understand the world around them. … In this sense, constructivism is associated with experiential learning and some theories of Jean Piaget.
Brentano, F. C. Bartlett, E. C. Tolman and functionalist and exponent of gestalt psychology and J. Piaget and J. S. such as the recognition of scientific achievements. Brunner.
What is social construction?
Social constructivism or the social construction of reality is a social-scientific and communication-theoretical
epistemology that examines the development of a jointly constructed understanding of the world that forms the basis of joint assumptions about reality.
Who gave the theory of constructivism?
Instead, radical constructivism is defined as an epistemological orientation that has evolved since the mid-1970s on the basis of the rejection of the concept of “objective reality”.
What is the difference between a molar approach and a molecular approach in the psychomatrix?
The molecular approach examines the subtle aspects of behavior (like reaction speed, sensory acuity, etc.), while the molar approach looks at more macro variables (like memory, attention, etc.).
Where was constructivism born?
Constructivism is a cultural movement that emerged in Russia in 1913, shortly before the 1917 revolution, which rejected the cult of “art for art’s sake” in favor of art as a social practice.
Constructivism is based on the principle that the acquisition of knowledge is the result of constant interaction between reality and the subject.
The individual is like an intuitive scientist who collects and interprets data about the reality that surrounds him.
The central idea of Vygotsky’s approach is that the development of the psyche is guided and influenced by the social context, i.e.
By the cultural and historical moment of the special place in which the individual lives and which arouses arousal in the child, and by “tools”. Was developed from (e.g. …
What does behaviorism study?
Behaviorism (or behaviorism or behavioral psychology) is an approach in psychology developed by psychologist John
Watson in the early 20th century, based on the assumption that the individual’s explicit behavior is the only scientifically investigative method to be used to analyze psychology …
Who is the greatest exponent of knowledge?
Cognitivism is based on some of the cornerstones that its greatest exponent, Howard Gardner, has identified.
What is the difference between cognitivism and constructivism?
Cognitivism and Constructivism: Constructivist Approach
In fact, it is believed that there are different worldviews depending on the point of view of the viewer. … In contrast to cognitionism, humans are not regarded as simple information processors, but as true creators of meaning.
What is the difference between behaviorism and cognitivism?
The transition from behaviorism to cognitivism follows a revision of the concept of the human mind: in terms of behavior.
The human mind is a black box that receives inputs and outputs without the possibility of control; On the other hand, according to cognitivism, the human mind is a processor …
How is learning defined in psychology?
In general, learning can be defined as a change in behavior that follows or is induced by the interaction with the environment and that results from experiences that lead to the establishment of new reaction configurations to external stimuli.
What is the importance of laboratory teaching?
Laboratory lessons are a teaching and learning strategy in which the student acquires knowledge in terms of its application.
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