# Number Facts

**What is dyscalculia or Number Facts?**

Dyscalculia is a specific disease of tartar that occurs in developmental age and Number Facts.

**This disorder is characterized by a lower numeracy ability than expected based on the age of the child and an adequate education. **

It is not due to a biological injury or insufficient training for psychological, educational or social reasons.

Children with significant counting disorders have deficits in number perception, in logical and operational skills, in arithmetic skills and in arithmetic thinking.

### How is the child doing arithmetic?

**The skills / disabilities inherent in the analysis tests are an understanding and production component of the number system.**

**On the neuropsychological level, the system of understanding and the system of production are separated.**

The comprehension system enables you to read numbers in Arabic codes (such as “3”) or graphic codes (such as “three”)

And recognize numbers in the code in a louder tone; Converts numbers (heard or read) into abstract representations of sets.

Production system provides numerical answers. This mechanism enables you to write numbers in Arabic or graphic code and to produce numbers orally.

The computing system takes the representation of quantities as input and “manipulates” them through the operation of three components:

**Operation symbols, “numerical facts” or basic operations (eg: 5 × 5; 10 + 10). ; etc) …) and calculation method.**

Semantic mechanism (control of the sense of quantity) (3 = o o o).

Lexical mechanisms (regulate number names) (1-11). When a number is verbally coded, each digit takes on a different “name” depending on its position.

The task of the lexical mechanism is to select the names of the digits long enough so that they can be fully recognized.

Syntactic system (internal grammar related to the position value of digits).

**Each digit in the composition of a number (for example, the numbers 2, 7, and 4) in the composition of two hundred and seventy-four has a special positional relationship with the other digits that make up the number.**

Example:

Status name and meaning change from you.

1 2

2 1

### What happens to a child or child with numeracy difficulties?

**Since computation systems are interdependent for understanding and production figures, potential errors in all three systems should be carefully analyzed in order to identify the weight of lexical, syntactic and semantic difficulties.**

Lexical errors: Errors related to the production or understanding of individual digits. Example: 4 instead of 7 (I read or represent myself, write or say “four” instead of “seven”); 15 instead of 13; 32 instead of 31 etc.

**Sentence-based mistakes: These are the most common mistakes children make when understanding numbers and generating numbers. **

The child is able to encrypt individual digits, but cannot establish the relationship between them in a correct syntax. Such mistakes seem to hide faulty or disorganized learning.

Typically these are transcoding errors between different Arabic verbal codes and vice versa.

Examples of errors due to non-detection of position values:

“three hundred ninety-nine” -> 310095

“six hundred and fifty-two” -> 6100502

“five thousand eight hundred forty-six” -> 500080046

**An example of a syntactic error is represented by a zero. **

**The word “zero” is never pronounced (generated in the oral code) unless one needs to refer to the absolute quantity of “zero”. **

If, however, “0” is written (output in Arabic code), this is required instead and other digits have the same position value (e.g. 102).

### Error in the calculation system

Failed to get numeric facts. The number system works in memory as a real network structure: the sum of two numbers coincides with their intersection.

**For example, the child may not understand the difference between addition and multiplication: 3 + 3 = 9; or it may incorrectly save the results of some actions.**

Ions (ex: 3 + 3 = 9 or 5 × 2 = 7) and their storage becomes stronger every time it evokes a certain response for a given operation.

On subsequent iterations of the operation, the child will get the same result with the type of persistent storage, even if there is a wrong association between the operation and the wrong result.

Failure to maintain and restore procedures and strategies.

**Difficulties with oral counting, as well as with written arithmetic, can be caused by overloading of information in the child’s memory that does not imply simple counting processes. **

For example, a child who has to add “2 + 8” helps themselves with immature processes, although they learn the convenient rule of starting with the largest appendix and then adding the smallest.

If the rules of convenience are not applied confidently, the memory system becomes overloaded with information, with considerable expenditure of cognitive energy and with complex tasks with actual memory deterioration.

**Eye problems. In an arithmetic operation, if a child has difficulty learning terms such as “right to left,” “bottom-up,” etc., they may have difficulty aligning numbers and following the direction of the process horizontally and vertically.**

Errors in performing procedures:

- At first the child does not know what to do when faced with one of the four operations (row or not, position of the numbers, other math symbols, etc.);
- the child does not know what to do if they have to undergo a certain operation;
- The child does not know how to use the loan and carryforward rules. If these rules are not learned, there may be a possible mistake, for example: 84 – 67 = 20 because 4-7 = 0 and 8-6 = 2;
- When moving on to a new operation, the child sticks to their previous logic and applies the specific procedures of one operation to another. (eg: behaves the same with addition and multiplication).

### Other characteristics of a dyscalculic or calculating child

**Generally speaking, a child with a numeracy or dysfunction will have normal intelligence. Cognitive skills such as memory, perception, attention, and concentration are sufficient. **

His specialty is low self-esteem. When the child makes mistakes, their emotional reactions are natural reactions to the mistakes:

They feel incapable, humiliated, disappointed and hopeless, depending on the school, family or friends.

In particular, unlike the dyslexic child, the dyslexic child feels more inadequate and less “intelligent” than other peers because of the misconceptions that exist about math:

“Those who are good at math are intelligent”. Young!”

## Evaluation and intervention

In order to plan the most individual, specific and calibrated rehabilitation measure possible for each child, it is advisable to carry out a valid clinical evaluation.

**The functional and qualitative assessment using specific tests and standardized tests is used to create a neuropsychological profile of the child.**

For children with decalculation or numeracy difficulties, there are diagnostic tools that allow you to assess the capabilities of the number system and the main components of cognitive processing of calculations

These tests identify specific difficulties to be treated and also provide tools for the child’s individual rehabilitation.

The interventions should be gradual: if solving a complex task requires more rules (for example, to correctly perform an addition.

**You need to know how to use columns, carry rules, etc. units, then you only work on stacking, additional processes, etc. Each primary unit is an activity that is practiced until it is acquired, before connecting with others.**

In addition to interventions related to numeracy difficulties, it is necessary to work with the child on their self-esteem and motivation.

Through a metacognitive approach, the child is led to think that they are having difficulty due to malfunctions

In the parts of the brain that form the basis of math skills and that the rest of normal mental functions are not affected:

“Don have no intelligence . ” Nothing comes with your math difficulties!

Rehabilitation should be implemented.