What is matter in Physics
Matter, a fundamental physical term (in addition to its meaning for philosophy and other natural sciences), has received various interpretations throughout the history of physics.
In the world view of classical physics, matter is a measurable and countable quantity that is distinct from energy and on which Newton’s distinction between the inertial mass and the heavy mass of physical bodies is based.
In the special theory of relativity, the concept of matter should be modified by the knowledge of the finite speed of light in electrodynamics; In particular, mass and energy are equivalent (mass-energy equivalence).
The equivalence of inert and heavy masses (the principle of equivalence) becomes the basis of general relativity. The concept of matter in quantum mechanics differs significantly from classical mechanics due to wave–particle dualism.
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, and superposition principle, and realistic interpretations of quantum mechanics must contain familiar notions of matter.
Classical Physics (Quantum Mechanics and its Interpretation). In quantum field theories, the concept of a matter field is introduced, with which the interaction of elementary particles is described (the Standard Model of elementary particles).
Nineteenth century thermodynamics treated raw materials from the point of view of heat theory and derived the two fundamental principles of thermodynamics from the equivalence of heat and work.
Ale. Boltzmann’s statistical approach studies the emergence of order in thermal equilibrium. Modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics provides a starting point for explaining the self-organization forms of matter.
The universe is dominated by matter
The state of the universe at about 3000 K (about half a million years after the Big Bang) by the disintegration of a matter-dominated universe, radiation and matter (recombination).
The photons remaining after this decoupling can now be recognized as background radiation. (cosmological age)
waves of matter
Waves of matter, in the context of quantum wave mechanics, each elementary particle is assigned a wave (de Broglie wave).
Mathematical Physics – Success and Failure
It is often held that the task of mathematical physics is to purify the physics of all earthly debris by refining the abstraction and then placing them in a field that cannot obey naive imagination and common sense.
The problems seem to be lurking elsewhere, however: as the fundamental laws of nature are well known, the unknown merges into the physics of the very small and the very large.
But human arithmetic is able to derive mathematical results from laws only in the simplest cases. Most of the time, guided or seduced by intuition, one has to resort to uncontrolled perspectives.
The logical unit breaks down and science with its language and folklore becomes a client of countless specialist fields.
Mathematics has evolved over the past hundred years so far that it answers questions on which intuition is initially powerless, because it has never been trained in this direction.
Therefore, mathematical physics often provides deep knowledge that cannot be obtained by simple arguments and which can close many gaps.
It is to be illustrated with the three hardest nuts in mathematical physics of the 1960s and 1970s. They also make it clear that it is not about epsilon tics or description, but about fundamental qualitative characteristics.
Matrix mechanics, introduced in 1925 by W. Heisenberg, then E. A few months before Schrödinger, wave mechanics creates quantum mechanics in the Heisenberg diagram (drawing in quantum mechanics), where the time-dependent operators are represented as a matrix and time.
Dependent states are vectors. In contrast, wave mechanics is similar to mathematics, which describes operators by means of differential operators. In matrix mechanics, the long-term evolution of a system is ensured by the Heisenberg equation.
Matsunami Approach, Quasi-empirical formula for the determination of the atomization coefficient. It is used in ion implantation and for the initial determination of ion beam atomization during implantation.
Mass Spectrograph Matauch
The Matauch Mass Spectrograph, 1934 by J. A mass spectrometer developed by Matauch, for the analysis of ion beams for components of various masses, and especially for the precise determination of mass with high resolution.
As the ions are focused by a calculated selection with an accuracy of speed and the size and angle of deflection of ions when passing through electric and magnetic fields to be performed simultaneously for all masses with respect to direction.
The ion beam is first split according to velocity in a radial electric field of 31°50′. It then passes through a diaphragm in the magnetic field in which it is deflected by 90° and which doubles according to different masses as well as doubles the focus according to speed and direction.
With this mass spectrometer it is possible to determine the ionic mass and hence the atomic mass with an accuracy of 10 to 7 mass units.
Maupertuis, Pierre Louis de Morrow, French mathematician, physicist and philosopher, * September 28, 1698 Saint-Malo, July 27, 1759 Basel; Member of the Academy of Sciences in Paris from 1723.
President of the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin from 1746, confidant of Frederick the Great; 1736–1737 measured geodetic degrees at a prominent position in Lapland (with A. Celsius and A.C. Clairot among others) to demonstrate the flatness of the Earth.
The one he erected in 1747 bears his name on it, but was already designed by G.W. in 1707. Maupertuis’s Principles of Mechanics (the principle of the smallest action) cited by Leibniz in a paper and published in 1744 by L. was strictly formulated by Euler, from which he tried to prove the existence of God (Essays on Cosmology, 1759).
They also work on the development of the fetus.
Maury, Matthew Fontaine, American oceanographer, * 14 January 1806 Fredericksburg (Va.), 1 February 1873 Lexington (Va.); Professor at Lexington from 1868; co-founder of modern oceanography.
Examined wind conditions and the course of the Atlantic Stream and in particular the Gulf Stream; The first evidence of the existence of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was found in 1850 when measuring sea level.
Max Born Medal
The Max Born Medal, the Max Born Medal and Prize, is awarded by the British Institute of Physics and the German Physical Society for scientific contributions of particular importance to physics.
The purpose of this award is to remember the work of Max Born in Germany and Great Britain. In even years, the prize is awarded to a German physicist in England; in Germany, in odd years.
It is awarded to a British or Irish physicist. The award consists of a medal, certificate and a cash prize of Rs.750.
One of the most important aspects of the study of the universe is to fully understand the concepts of matter and energy, because in principle it can be said that everything that exists in space-time is matter and energy.
What is matter?
Matter is the substance from which physical bodies are made. In other words, it is everything that has mass and occupies a place in space.
When we talk about mass, we are referring to the matter that is in a body, so it is a fundamental quantity for understanding matter and doing work.
Another important aspect to consider when studying matter is volume, which can be defined as the space that a body occupies with respect to its mass.
Thus, depending on the density of the mass of a body, that is, the proximity of its substance, we will be in one state or the opposite of another substance.
Although there are various defined states of aggregation that go beyond the classical states, the best known are the solid, liquid, and gas states.
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These aggregate states do not define matter as its essence, because the only thing that differs from matter is the closeness of their atoms to each other. contact.
Bodies whose matter is in the gaseous state are also bodies whose atoms move much more strongly than each other, so that their adaptation to peripheral bodies exceeds that of bodily fluids.
what is energy?
When we talk about energy, we are talking about a physical quantity because it can measure. Yet it is more difficult to imagine than matter, because it is an immaterial reality, if no less real.
The classic definition of energy is the ability to do work. In this sense, energy should be understood as the ability of bodies to do work.
Which can include a change in the state of the body (transition from a stationary state to a moving state or vice versa, or a change in the speed of motion) , or a change in the state of bodies, for example from a liquid to a gaseous one.
Thus, energy is understood as the intrinsic ability to effect these changes or actions. This energy can take many forms and is defined only by its origin. We can talk of electromagnetic energy, thermal energy, chemical energy etc.
Matter and Energy
Matter and energy constantly interact. In fact, without energy, matter would be in a stable steady state. In this way matter and energy constantly interact with each other.
where matter would be the passive subject subject to the action of energy while energy would be the active subject that energetically alters the state of rest or motion of matter.
Chemical properties of matter
These are the properties that a substance acquires when it has undergone chemical reactions that modify its basic properties. These are:
It is the property of matter to combine (or not) with other substances.
It is the ability of a substance to react when it comes into contact with water (H2O) or oxygen (O).
It is the energy that a substance releases after complete combustion.
It is the property of a substance that releases or accepts electrons that determines its degree of acidity or alkalinity.
The ability of matter to remain stationary. When matter is unstable, it can release radioactive energy.
How is the subject classified?
The subject is divided into two categories:
These are substances that retain their structure even when they change their state. The basic substances in turn are divided into two groups:
They are pure substances containing only one type of atom. They cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
Examples of elements: oxygen (O) and carbon (C).
They are pure substances in which two or more elements are always present in a definite quantity. In this case, the elements can be broken down through specific chemical processes to keep them separate.
Examples of compounds: Water (H2O) subjected to electrolysis allows the production of both hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O).
They are pure substances in which two or more elements are present in different proportions. Mixtures, in turn, are divided into:
Its components are not easy to differentiate. They are also called solutions.
An example of a homogeneous mixture would be a tablespoon of salt dissolved in a glass of water.
The components of the mixture can be easily identified.
An example of classification would be a handful of sand in a glass of water.
Examples of Content
Since matter is defined as anything that has mass and takes up space, every living being, life form or inert object is an example of matter. In other words, it can be concrete examples of content:
Elements of the periodic table.
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