What is a Processor in Computer?
Do you want to know what a processor is and what it does? We will explain this to you.
The processor is the heart of computers and other devices. No hardware works without it.
Other names for processors are main processor or central processing unit, or CPU for short. In this article we will explain how a processor works and why it is so important.
- Heart of computer: CPU
- Functions of CPU: Calculation and Control
- More CPU Cores – Higher Performance
- Heart of computer: CPU
The processor is often called the heart of a computer or its brain. These metaphors show how important the processor is to the functioning of a computer.
Another name is CPU (from English “Central Processing Unit”). Like the heart, the processor also runs at a fixed clock rate.
The higher this frequency, the faster the CPU and therefore the computer. Frequency is measured in hertz, one hertz standing for one cycle per second.
Functions of CPU: Calculation and Control
The CPU commands and controls the functions of a device. For example, when you press a key on the keyboard:
The processor receives this input as a command, calculates it, and executes the command. For example, it displays a character on the screen as output.
To do this, the processor communicates with the main memory and peripheral devices such as the mouse and keyboard, and data is transferred between them using a so-called bus system.
All data is binary encoded, so there are only “1” and “0” values. The data the processor is currently working with is saved in the main memory.
This, so to speak, is the short-term memory of the computer. When the memory is full, the processor must first process the data before the new data can enter the memory. Result:
Your computer slows down and freezes, and its performance drops.
More CPU Cores – Higher Performance
To improve CPU performance, multiple processor cores can be interconnected on a single chip. So manufacturers like Intel or AMD state the following: a single-core processor has only one CPU core, a dual-core has two.
A quad-core processor is also called a quad-core, hexa-core six-core processor; An octa-core CPU also has eight processor cores.
The higher the clock rate of the CPU, the hotter it gets. So it is important to cool the CPU to avoid damage.
On ordinary computers, it works through ventilation; Particularly powerful processors can be cooled even with water.
What parts is the CPU made of?
From an IT point of view, the function of the CPU is to execute instructions for programs that are taken from a mass storage device, for example a hard disk, and opened in RAM.
The following is usually found in a CPU:
Control unit: reads instructions in the central memory (RAM) and stores the results of the operations;
Arithmetic and Logic Unit: It performs arithmetic and logical operations like a kind of pocket calculator;
Shifter: processes the data and modifies it in relation to the tasks to be performed;
Some registers: They are parts of the memory inside the CPU, important because accessing them is much faster than accessing RAM.
What happens to the data in the CPU?
When choosing a processor for your computer, clock speed is an important value. It is a value expressed in Hertz and indicates the speed at which the CPU performs a cycle that includes:
- Read instructions: The CPU receives instructions from the central memory;
- Decoding: the processor determines what operation to perform;
- Execution: The actual execution of the operations required by the program through instructions;
- Activation of memory;
Write the result in the appropriate register.
The higher the clock frequency, the faster the processor speed. Today, CPU clock rates vary depending on the device:
While they can reach up to 3 or 4 GHz per core on desktop PCs or laptops, they are usually between 1 and 2 GHz on smartphones and some tablets.
Whenever you need to buy a processor for your computer, we recommend that you always take a look at the datasheet of the motherboard you plan to install it on.
As each CPU is only compatible with certain models based on its socket.
In order to choose the right computer processor for you, I specifically wrote an article that covers the best PC processors of the time, which I always keep updated with the latest models.
I recommend that you buy your future CPU in the online shop with great availability so that the latest model is always available on the market.
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