What are the 7 Philosophy of Education by Jacques Maritain’s philosophy of education
The influential theory of individualism and the modernism of Catholicism of the late nineteenth century.
- Catholic Response to Academic Activism
- Personality of Jacques Maritain
2.1 Individual Anthropology and the End of Education [taken from The Education of the Individual, 1959]
2.2 Simulation of the second test o
- Catholic Response to Academic Activism
The Catholic world viewed the innovations of educational activism with skepticism and distance, in the belief that the new school was calling into question Christian education.
The main objection to activism by Catholic philosophers consists in the observation that man is not only an innate and sentient nature.
Also a spiritual and rational nature and that his destiny is not only a social one, but also a personal and religious one.
For this reason, according to the Swiss Eugene Davoud, the true active school is one that considers the whole person.
Including spiritual and religious aspects, and is therefore inspired by Christian humanism, which is able to pinpoint the meaning of experience. Man.
After examining its methods and objectives
Devaud argued rigorously with the school proposed by Claparde and Ferrire, clearly optimistic in his opinion, but in fact deeply pessimistic about the possibility of an education. That was based on interests and needs.
The reason for this is beyond the simple mechanical nature of and unlike the traditional Catholic school which instills in the student the love of knowledge, as a means of reaching higher spiritual ends.
It is not enough to declare that the child must be active, it is necessary to clearly indicate the purpose of his activity and what is good for which to act, strive, persevere.
For which truth is communicated in the community of school children. It has a traditional school. School children tend to get the truth and are passive in this regard.
But they suit it with an active movement of their intelligence, actively training themselves to conform to it in and out of the classroom.
All the knowledge of the student consists in following the teacher who teaches, obeying him with attention.
Application, humility, all the knowledge of the teacher consists in teaching with authority, determining subjects, methods, practices [of the Christian According to the Order for an Active School, 1934].
To educate as well as to open the intellect is, in fact, to Devaud, presenting the truth:
There is a Christian order, that is, a Christian method for the education of wisdom. Intelligence is the activity that makes us aware of the truth.
We create, that is, we educate our intelligence, to know what it is, to present the truth, whether natural or supernatural [ibidem].
To understand the cultural climate in which the Catholic response to activism operates, it is necessary to take into account the encyclopedic.
Divine Ileus Magisterium issued by Pius XI in 1929, which states that since the effect of original sin remains in man .
From childhood, the intellect must be enlightened and determined by the means of supernatural truth and grace.
Since education, like every other human action, is necessary in relation to the ultimate goal of man, education cannot escape the norms of divine law, of which the Church.
“The protector, interpreter and infallible teacher”. Therefore every teaching must have truth as its object and the magisterium of the Church as its inspiration.
Particularly a weakening of the will and a disorganized tendency:
In light of these principles, the Catholic philosopher contrasts the “naturalism” of secular activism with the educational.
Vision of Thomas Aquinas, according to which the “potential” qualities of the student are realized by the teacher who possesses the whole science in which The disciple should take the initiative.
Jacques Maritain was born in Paris into a Protestant family with a liberal tradition. After converting to Catholicism, the philosopher takes.
An anti-modern position that longs for a return to the integrity of the human experience that was broken with the end of the medieval era.
Modern culture is indeed rife with the logic of alienation and partisanship: Luther separates theology from philosophy; Machiavelli from ethics to politics.
Descartes, once the skepticism is introduced, finds only the certainty of the ego, and separates the res cogitans from nature by res extensa, thought.
Rousseau, on the other hand, opposes natural spontaneity to the primacy of logic, culture and society. Idealism absolutizes the ego to the point of identifying it with everything.
Reality; Positivism, with its scientific claims, in contrast, brings all reality back to nature alone, whereas metaphysics is assumed, and with it theology and the exaltation of God.
If modernity has shattered the image of man, it is necessary to anchor ourselves in the last great system of organic thought formed.
Thomism in the context of rediscovering the foundations of morality, politics and education to emerge out of the crisis of modernity. Is.
From Thomas, Mariten draws on the idea of the human individual as an ontological entity—that is, a reality in itself regardless of nature, society, or state—which draws its constancy.
Therefore the restoration of metaphysics and theology is a condition for the recovery of the value of the individual and, therefore, for the re-foundation of a social order based on the dignity of man.
Contemporary education is partial, as it has lost the sense of human wholeness.
The philosopher in this regard, in fact, identifies seven errors, the main of which are the rejection of the end, the substitution of the materialistic idea of man for the idea of the individual.
Pragmatism (the action is evaluated in itself) ), sociology ( The individual is perceived as a function of society), intellectualism (the integral education of the individual is contrasted by a special one).
Giacomelli, instead, needed a new pedagogy that knows how to be inspired by a new humanism that triumphs over.
Homo Faber’s anthropocentrism in favor of a theocentric humanism that does not include the elimination of references to God, But the realization of man is involved.
Means, methods, programmers, educational techniques are important but secondary to the goal of teaching the truth as observed by the teacher.
Education related to this vision should develop a sense of responsibility and human duties, exercise of authority for the common good, respect for humanity in every individual.
Moral education is thus the opposite of educational agnosticism: according to Mariten, each state has a duty to educate its citizens on the.
Values of the communities on which it is based, but these values must be filtered through the different communities. And the beliefs they build.
So pluralistic education is not an agnostic education, but an education that allows each religious community to transmit common values through the particular message that sets it apart.
The individual is not truly free, but must be freed through education and this is not possible if he is not placed before a belief that he may choose.
Everyone must know the religion in order to be able to choose agnosticism if they so desire.
Individual Anthropology and the End of Education
It is clear that the primary aim of education is determined by human nature.
Question: This has two implications: one philosophical or “ontological”, relating to human nature, which is regarded as essential to it, the other scientific or “phenomenal”.
Relating to human nature considered in its extraordinary features, which are considered by modern science. purpose of investigation. and calculation. These two implications are by no means incompatible.
Far as the “natural” dimension is concerned, science, and empirical psychology in particular, provides us with.
Growing number of valuable elements that must be taken advantage of in our practical way of reaching children and young people.
But in itself, it can provide us, in matters of education, neither the first foundation nor the first orientation: this is because education needs to know first of all what man is, what the constitutional principles of his being.
What is his place in the world and his value, what is his destiny. These things are related to the philosophical knowledge of man, including data concerning his state of existence.
The Thomist view of man coincides with Greek, Jewish, and Christian views:
It is a man endowed with reason in the form of an animal, whose supreme dignity lies in intelligence; as a free man in personal relationship with God, whose supreme virtue is to obey God’s law voluntarily;
As a sinful and wounded creature, called to the salvation brought by divine life and grace, whose supreme perfection is in love.
[Mariton adopts the Thomist idea of man, which, in his opinion, brings back in synthesis the Greek, Jewish and Christian idea of the human person.
The concept of man as a rational animal, as a natural and rational being, is related to Greek thought; Jewish thought welcomes man’s relationship with God, as a relationship that is established.
Christian thought shares the notion of limits and possibilities of salvation.
Therefore, according to Mariten, the real critical education of man should be humanistic and Christian.
In fact, it is holistic humanism when it does not stop at classical humanism, but rather integrates it with the appropriation of Jewish and Christian ideas. Ed.].
At the same time, Thomist philosophy emphasizes the deep psychological unity of man (a substance composed of matter and a spiritual “form”).
And also emphasizes the notion of human personality. Ultimately, man is a man who keeps himself to himself through his intelligence and will. Humans do not only exist as natural beings.
He has within himself a richer and greater being: a spiritual super existence of knowledge and love.
Through love he can give himself freely to beings who, to him, are in some way themselves. And such relationships have no counterpart in the natural world.
Man develops in history. However, his nature, place and worth in the universe, dignity, rights, aspirations as a person, and destiny before God do not change.
Consequently, the secondary educational goals must adapt to the changing conditions of later historical epochs.
But as far as implicit internal regulatory action on the primary and secondary purposes is concerned, it is pure fallacy to speak of a continuous revision of the educational purposes.
Practice for the second test
“It is the inevitable prelude to any philosophy of education [and] it has two implications: one philosophical or ‘ontological’ relating to human nature regarded as essential to its existence.
The other scientific or ‘phenomenological’ relating to relates to human nature Human nature is regarded as one of its phenomenal characters which are the subject of study by modern observational and computational science.
Far from being incompatible, these two implications are complementary.” [Jacques Maritain, The Education of the Person, 1959]
Having taken up the fundamental arguments of the French philosopher and educator Jacques Maritain’s critique of modern society, describe the principles underlying his integral humanism in light of “knowledge-based knowledge”.
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